RSA加密解密

什么是对称加密,什么是非对称加密?

加密解密使用同样的密钥,则是对称加密,使用不一样的密钥就是非对称加密,RSA属于非对称加密。

RSA中有公钥和私钥的概念,公钥加密私钥解密,私钥加密公钥解密,也可以使用RSA对消息进行签名

一些常量

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/**
* 加密算法RSA
*/
public static final String KEY_ALGORITHM = "RSA";
/**
* 签名算法
*/
public static final String SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM = "MD5withRSA";
/**
* 获取公钥的key
*/
public static final String PUBLIC_KEY = "RSAPublicKey";
/**
* 获取私钥的key
*/
public static final String PRIVATE_KEY = "RSAPrivateKey";
/**
* RSA最大加密明文大小
*/
private static final int MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK = 117;
/**
* RSA最大解密密文大小
*/
private static final int MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK = 128;

2.获取密钥对

  • 这里使用了内置的方法获取生成的公钥私钥,返回的密钥已经经过了Base64编码的处理,是可见的字符串。
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/**
* <p>
* 生成密钥对(公钥和私钥)
* </p>
*
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static Map<String, Object> getKeyPair(int size) throws Exception {
KeyPairGenerator keyPairGen = KeyPairGenerator.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
keyPairGen.initialize(size);
KeyPair keyPair = keyPairGen.generateKeyPair();
RSAPublicKey publicKey = (RSAPublicKey) keyPair.getPublic();
RSAPrivateKey privateKey = (RSAPrivateKey) keyPair.getPrivate();
Map<String, Object> keyMap = new HashMap<String, Object>(2);
keyMap.put(PUBLIC_KEY, publicKey);
keyMap.put(PRIVATE_KEY, privateKey);
return keyMap;
}
/**
* <p>
* 获取私钥
* </p>
*
* @param keyMap 密钥对
* @return 获取的key已经经过base64编码
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String getPrivateKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap)
throws Exception {
Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PRIVATE_KEY);
// return Base64Utils.encode(key.getEncoded());
return Base64.encodeToString(key.getEncoded(), Base64.NO_WRAP);
}
/**
* <p>
* 获取公钥
* </p>
*
* @param keyMap 密钥对
* @return 获取的key已经经过base64编码
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String getPublicKey(Map<String, Object> keyMap)
throws Exception {
Key key = (Key) keyMap.get(PUBLIC_KEY);
// return Base64Utils.encode(key.getEncoded());
return Base64.encodeToString(key.getEncoded(), Base64.NO_WRAP);
}`

私钥加密

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/**
* <p>
* 私钥加密
* </p>
*
* @param data 源数据
* @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptByPrivateKey(byte[] data, String privateKey)
throws Exception {
// byte[] keyBytes = Base64Utils.decode(privateKey);
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(privateKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, privateK);
int inputLen = data.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段加密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] encryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return encryptedData;
}

公钥加密

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/**
* <p>
* 公钥加密
* </p>
*
* @param data 源数据
* @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] encryptByPublicKey(byte[] data, String publicKey)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(publicKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);
// 对数据加密
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.ENCRYPT_MODE, publicK);
int inputLen = data.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段加密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_ENCRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] encryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return encryptedData;
}

公钥解密

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/**
* <p>
* 公钥解密
* </p>
*
* @param encryptedData 已加密数据
* @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] decryptByPublicKey(byte[] encryptedData, String publicKey)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(publicKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, publicK);
int inputLen = encryptedData.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段解密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return decryptedData;
}

私钥解密

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/**
* <P>
* 私钥解密
* </p>
*
* @param encryptedData 已加密数据
* @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] decryptByPrivateKey(byte[] encryptedData, String privateKey)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(privateKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(Cipher.DECRYPT_MODE, privateK);
int inputLen = encryptedData.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段解密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(encryptedData, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return decryptedData;
}

消息签名

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/**
* <p>
* 用私钥对信息生成数字签名
* </p>
*
* @param data 已加密数据
* @param privateKey 私钥(BASE64编码)
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static String sign(byte[] data, String privateKey) throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(privateKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
PrivateKey privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
signature.initSign(privateK);
signature.update(data);
return Base64.encodeToString(signature.sign(), Base64.NO_WRAP);
}

验证签名

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/**
* <p>
* 使用公钥校验数字签名
* </p>
*
* @param data 已加密数据
* @param publicKey 公钥(BASE64编码)
* @param sign 数字签名
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static boolean verifySign(byte[] data, String publicKey, String sign)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(publicKey, Base64.NO_WRAP);
X509EncodedKeySpec keySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
PublicKey publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(keySpec);
Signature signature = Signature.getInstance(SIGNATURE_ALGORITHM);
signature.initVerify(publicK);
signature.update(data);
return signature.verify(Base64.decode(sign, Base64.NO_WRAP));
}

抽取公共代码

  • 可以发现有很多重复代码,这样写是为了更加清晰,代码抽取一下
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/**
*
* 使用私钥操作时
* @param data
* @param key
* @param mode
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] UsePrivate(byte[] data, String key,int mode)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(key, Base64.NO_WRAP);
PKCS8EncodedKeySpec pkcs8KeySpec = new PKCS8EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key privateK = keyFactory.generatePrivate(pkcs8KeySpec);
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(mode, privateK);
int inputLen = data.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段解密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return decryptedData;
}
/**
* 使用公钥操作
* @param data
* @param key
* @param mode
* @return
* @throws Exception
*/
public static byte[] UsePublic(byte[] data, String key,int mode)
throws Exception {
byte[] keyBytes = Base64.decode(key, Base64.NO_WRAP);
X509EncodedKeySpec x509KeySpec = new X509EncodedKeySpec(keyBytes);
KeyFactory keyFactory = KeyFactory.getInstance(KEY_ALGORITHM);
Key publicK = keyFactory.generatePublic(x509KeySpec);
Cipher cipher = Cipher.getInstance(keyFactory.getAlgorithm());
cipher.init(mode, publicK);
int inputLen = data.length;
ByteArrayOutputStream out = new ByteArrayOutputStream();
int offSet = 0;
byte[] cache;
int i = 0;
// 对数据分段解密
while (inputLen - offSet > 0) {
if (inputLen - offSet > MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK) {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK);
} else {
cache = cipher.doFinal(data, offSet, inputLen - offSet);
}
out.write(cache, 0, cache.length);
i++;
offSet = i * MAX_DECRYPT_BLOCK;
}
byte[] decryptedData = out.toByteArray();
out.close();
return decryptedData;
}
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